Nails are the extensions of the epidermis which help us hold the objects and support our fingers . Nails are rectangular and have convex shapes and are semitransclunet. Nails grow on their beds.
The pink part of the nail is called lunula. Generally, the nails of a healthy person groplanus, they grow about 0.9 mm. a week. On the other hand, each finger nail has a different time period to grow. For example, if the patient has psoriasis, the nails grow fast but if he/ she has planus, they grow slowly.
There are different kinds of nail ailments. You will find information about some of them below:

In this ailment, the nails resemble spoons with their concave shapes. There are many reasons for this: Whereas It can be seen on children’s nails , it can also be seen on old people’s nails, too. Unfortunately, this ailment can’t be cured if the patient is old.
With birth: Coroner disfuntions, syndrome of the nail-patella, ectodermal displazi, trikotiodistrofi.
With occupation: On the nails of housewives, who has to work with oil, on the hands of the roof cleaners.
With infections: onikomikozis ( fungus on the nail) , iron deficiency anemia, emocromatozis,porfiria,kidney transplantation and dialysis, polistemi vera, lack of nutrition.
Dermotologically: scleroderma,alope aleata, liken planus, psoriasis, Darier and Raynaud diseases.

Splinter Hemoraji

It is seen as if there is a splinter on the bed of the nail which caused a bleeding site. If the problem is on one nail, it isnt so serious but pricarditis, Raynaud illness, Antifosfolifit Syndrome, lack of collagen, ailments in the veins, high blood pressure, rheumatoid arthritis, hemodialysis patients, psoriasis, omnikomikozis , eczema, pemfigusda can cause this ailment.

Clubbing Finger
In this ailment, there is a serious bent on the bed of the nail. The soft tissue on the tip of the nail gets thicker and bigger, due to the formation of fibrimasculent layer, the nail can be moved very easily as it is soft and in the 60% of the examples, cyanosis can be seen.
This ailment can be the cause of problems with the lungs, sacoidoz, illnesses in the digestive system, liver problems, thyroid problems, blood problems, lack of nutrition and vein problems.

The convexity of the nail increases and it twirls to have a roll shape and it is ingrown. As well as the genetis factors, betablcker medicines, psoriasis, narrow shoes, tumors of the bones can be the causes of this ailment. Cronical infections, shoe hurting and pain are the main complaints of the patients. During the treatment , the patient can use creams with urea.
Spring cluthes can be used to widen the nail and sometimes the nail bed can be widened with a surgical operation.

Racket Nail
The bone of the thumb is shorter and thicker than usual . For that reason its bed is short. This doesn’t mean that the nail has a problem. It is most frequently seen on women’s hands.

Horizontal Lines on The Nail ( Beau)
These lines on the nail show the misgrowth on the nail. Its wideness show us how serious the problem is .Operations, stress, allergical diseases , some medicines , measles, typhus and sometimes pellegra, SLE, psoriasis and trauma can be the reasons for this ailment.

Onikofaji and Onikotillomani
Eating the nails ( onikofaji) and ripping them out ( onikotillomani) can be bacause of stress. Psvchiatric support should be taken.
Nail Dystrophy
The surface of the nail is rough and it peels off. Atopic dermatits , alopesi areata, psoriasis and liken planus are the most frequent causes for this ailment. Sometimes there is no reason for it.
The patient can use creams which have corticosteroid.

Nail Patella Syndrome
It is a genetic disorder. It is mostly seen on the thumb or index finger. There can be shape defect, swetting, not having a patella or patella being small, loss of the nail , lunula having a triangular shape, chronic glomerulonegrit or iris pigmentation disorder.

The outer parts of the nail twirls in its bed, gets thicker and harder. For this reason it is called as paw nail. It can look like a horn or a beak. This ailment can be seen mostly on old people’s toes . It can be seen more frequently if the patient can’t cut his/ her nails or if the patient has circulatory system disorder. Some of them can be because of chronic traumas or completely idiopathic. The patient is suggested to have his /her nail pulled out.

The nails can be cracked very easily or the layers can get apart. If the patient has hypotyroids, vitamin deficiency, or if he/she has to work with detergents and soap , or because of trauma, this ailment can be seen. It can sometimes show that the patient has iron defficiency.

Yellow Nail Syndrome
Growth of the nails is very slow , they get thicker and turn green or yellow. Lunula disappears. Lymphedema can be seen on the tips of the fingers or heels. The patient can have chronic bronchitis . He / she can be getting penicillamine.

Ingrown Toenail
Is the most frequent nail ailment. At the beginning, the nail is sensitive and then it gets reddish and painful. It is infected. It can have many reasons, some are congenital or the nail can be big for the finger,trauma can be another reason for ingrown nail. Narrow shoes or cutting the nails in an improper way can be another reason.
Treatment without Surgical Implementation
• Wet your feet 3-4 times a day.
• Always dry your feet well.
• You can use antienflamatuar for the pain.
• Ask your doctor if it doesn’t get any better in 2-3 days.
You can firmly lift the edges of the nail and put a small piece of cotton or dental floss but you should change them every day.
You shouldnt cut your nails very short.